Glossary of Terms
An offshore consolidated rock hazard to navigation, with a least depth of about 20 metres (10 fathoms) or less. Often refers to coral fringing reefs in tropical waters.
Rubble mound of single-sized stones with a crest at or below sea level which is allowed to be (re)shaped by the waves.
A specified location (in plan elevation) to which measurements are refered.
- In beach material studies, a specified point within the reference zone.
A place for which tidal constants have previously been determined and which is used as a standard for the comparison observations at a second station.
- A station for which independent daily predictions are given in the tide or current tables from which corresponding predictions are obtained for other stations by means of differences or factors.
In regard to beach measuring procedure, the part of the foreshore subject to wave action (between the limit of uprush and the limit of backwash) at mid-tide stage.
That part of an incident wave that is returned seaward when a wave impinges on a steep beach, barrier, or other reflecting surface.
The process by which the energy of the wave is returned seaward.
The process by which the direction of a wave moving in shallow water at an angle to the contours is changed: the part of the wave advancing in shallower water moves more slowly than that part still advancing in deeper water, causing the wave crest to bend toward alignment with the underwater contours.
- The bending of wave crests by currents.
Average period of time between occurrences of a given event.
A sloping type of shoreline armouring often constructed from large interlocking boulders. Revetments tend to have a rougher (less reflective) surface than seawalls.