Glossary of Terms
A very large, more or less circular, pattern of water circulation in an open ocean basin.
The study of the sea embracing and indicating all knowledge pertaining to the sea's physical boundaries, the chemistry and physics of the seawater, marine biology, and marine geology.
The portion of the littoral system that is always submerged.
A breakwater built towards the seaward limit of the littoral zone, parallel (or nearly parallel) to the shore.
Any current in the offshore zone. Also refers to any current flowing away from shore.
Waters with low primary productivity because of limited supplies of nutrients.
A surface exposure of bare rock, not covered by soil or vegetation.
The water that splashes over the top of a breakwater, seawall or other coastal defence structure.
Passing of water over the top of a structure as a result of wave run-up or surge action.
Transport of the sediment landward of the active beach by coastal flooding during a tsunami, hurricane, or other event with extreme waves.
The part of the uprush that runs over the crest of a berm of a structure and does not flow directly back to the ocean or lake.
- The effects of waves overtopping a coastal defence, often carrying sediment landwards which is then lost to the beach system.